Shandong Province is situated along the eastern coastal lines and in the lower reaches of Yellow River, comprising of peninsulas and inlands. The Shandong peninsula stretches out between Bo Sea and Yellow Sea, stands facing each other with Liaodong peninsula and embraces Bo Sea Bay.
Shandong has always been known as the "hometown of Confucius and Mencius, as well as the land of ceremony and propriety". Throughout history, Shandong has produced many celebrities who have exerted great influence on Chinese culture, and that continues to this day. Confucianism created by Confucius, the great thinker, educator and politician honored as a sage, is pivotal to Chinese culture and still exerts influence around the world. The Art of War written by Sun Tzu, a famous ancient strategist in Shandong, is considered as a classic in both military and commercial circles. Besides Confucius and Sun Tzu, who were respectively renowned as the "Sage of Culture" and the "Sage of Strategy", other famous ancient figures from Shandong include Wang Xizhi, the "Sage of Calligraphy", inventor Lu Ban, miracle-making doctor Bian Que, strategist Zhuge Liang as well as poets Li Qingzhao and Xin Qiji, and novelist Pu Songling.